Welcome to Part IV of recently found journal notes from a 1994 workshop in Nashville, taught by the great vocal pedagogue, Richard Miller. You can find Parts, I, II and III HERE.
It is interesting to compare these notes to what is available in pedagogy graduate programs now days. This information seems basic now, but 20 years ago it was new information.
A medical doctor by the name of ‘Dr. Mitchell’ is brought in to lecture on vocal health basics. They are ‘basics’ alright. He is talking to us like we are 10 year-olds. He gives us such gems as “A professional instrumentalist must operate at over 100% efficiency in order to do his/her work.”
The number of glands that lubricate the cords and larynx dry up as you get older, just as a course of regular aging. wow, I did not know this….
Medication for infertility can have a permanent effect of lowering the voice. Aspirin can cause vocal fold hemorrhage. Blood pressure medications can cause drying and mood changes.
Increase hydration when on medications. Lord he is on a roll.
He says one vague thing about the female endocrine system–“premarin helps keep you moist.” (used when? all through the life passages? how? the lack of useful information from this medical person is astounding.)
Other brilliant tidbits include 1) When you are on tour, bring your own food. (which you figure out fast enough when you are on tour, ) and 2.) Environmental allergies are hard to test. (smoke, perfume, carpet cleaners, etc.) Basically got nothing out of his lecture. pffffft.
Next we observe slides of various surgical processes. First one is removing a cyst from a fold. Also observed enlarged blood vessels due to great subglottic pressure in one singer and during menstruation in another. Observed a laser coagulating blood vessels.
Observed a vocal hemorrhage in an undergraduate singer.
Miller notes that speech pathology degrees do not include singing training until the masters’ level.
Vocal folds should vibrate in phase relative to each other. When they fail to oscillate in phase, these phase differences contribute to dysphonia. Normal is when the vocal folds open and close together. Out of phase vibration is when one fold in the open phase while the other fold is in the close phase. Phase shifts can occur in the lateral/medial plane or anterior to posterior direction.
Many possible variations in vocal fold oscillation means that some seemingly abnormal vibratory patterns are actual normal variations. Miller says the “open posterior chink” is common, especially in women.
“Bowed vocal folds” typically applies to the aged voice. It appears that the front part of the folds have atrophied or there is nerve injury to the folds. This means that the Bernoulli effect takes place through a smaller space and picks up speed.
(I am belly-missing my children but it is a relief to have a break from continuously coordinating all my moves so the kids are taken care of…)
Soprano sings Schumann “Widmung”
Miller uses the interval of a 6th on (eh), followed by (a) and back again to even out a wobble on the top. He maintains that just by opening the mouth while ascending, vowels are modified. He does not think one needs to substitute different vowel sounds to modify. It seems to me that he is using “opening the mouth” to mean how the jaw moves through an ascending pattern.
Most of today’s master class singers got lessons on vowel migration or lack thereof.
Epiglottis covers the larynx in the act of swallowing. Epiglottis responds to the tongue. He recommends the book “Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Larynx” by Sir Victor Negus. (Note today: look for this in discount venues and used book stores because it is crazy expensive on Amazon.)
Vibrato is a healthy relaxation principle. The shaking jaw or tongue may be tension, but it is more often in a healthy, relaxed posture, particularly in sopranos because of the size of the larynx.
Miller abhors straight-tone singing.
The “tracheal pull” occurs with lower abdominal breath–lowers the larynx automatically. Note: this does not mean ignore the width of the ribs or movement of the back when inhaling.
The false vocal folds move away from the true folds as pitch ascends. This is not a conscious thing, but occurs with proper coordination.
Vocal folds have three parts (skin or ligament, middle, vocalis muscle) The muscles and tissues of the larynx are as sensitive to minute adjustments as the eye.
Chest voice vibrates more fully in the vocalis muscles, Head voice vibrates more on the edge of the folds.
There is fixed subglottic pressure in trachea and bronchi.
Voice scientists at present think there are only 2 registers. (? really?)
When Leontyne Price sang Carmen, she carried chest voice up to a4 and b-flat4 and got nodes. Had to take off for 6 months. Miller admits he knows nothing about mitigating technique for popular styles. (He was good-naturedly accused of living in an ivory tower.)
Point–I don’t want to imitate technical differences between vocal styles. I want to be able to teach technical differences and have been trying to develop methods to do this for years. Feel like I am out on my own, with few resources. Disappointed Miller couldn’t speak to chest registration and belt more. He does mention that he has observed that a higher larynx allows a singer to sing in chest longer.
All his slides this afternoon are from his book, The Structure of Singing. He also has pictures of the epiglottis/folds from Appleman’s book.
Miller insists on a quiet breath for efficiency. Sub-mandibular muscles are attached to the hyoid bone which is attached to larynx.
The mouth, pharynx and larynx are the main resonators, just occasionally, the naso-pharynx.
The Germanic school often teaches “cover.” The Italians teach a small amount of graduated modification at first passaggio and continues on up. Miller recommends starting this adjustment right below the primo passaggio.
Use falsetto in men to counter rigidity. Falsetto is not head voice in men!
Increase appoggio for high notes. We compared visual performances and spectrographs of Price, Tebaldi, Steber and Shirley Verrett singing “Visse D’Arte.” Miller calls Verrett a “zwischen.” She was not as successful singing this aria as the others. She used high clavicular breathing, head bobbed all over the place, very unstable compared to the stillness of the others. Tebaldi was under-energized in appoggio.
We then spend some time talking about exercises for men’s voices. He suggests 5-4-3-2-1-5-3-1, starting on “oo” and going to “ah” on 1, using falsetto if the voice is rigid. He works with several different volunteers from class. If a singer has a break going from 5 to 1, he has them sing softer and slide more, sometimes changing the vowels.
Increase appoggio for high notes.
Tenor-“Comfort Ye….Every Valley”
Miller vowel-tracts (has singer go vowel to vowel) for more legato and brilliance in a beautiful voice. Also uses “nie, nie, nia, nia, niu.” Just an observation–he seems much more comfortable working with male voices.
Soprano–(did not note what she sang) but she has a wonker of a voice–very loud with crazy vibrato.
Miller first realigns support from “pull in” method to appoggio. He says this will change her subglottic pressure which is currently creating throat tension.
This soprano is large breasted and he has her put her hands behind her back, walk slowly forward, kneel, walk backwards while singing on “ya.” 1—5—1—54321—-5—-1. This seems to help her alignment and freedom of breath.
Soprano sings John Duke “Nobody Knows This Little Rose”
Miller starts by using agility exercises in mid-voice:
He is trying to build focus in her middle voice, which doesn’t have much of a presence.
The old wisdom “inhale through the nose like you’re smelling a rose,” pertains to the zygomatic arch.
Stuck in between the pages of this journal at this point were two postcards I sent my children that week. wow. remember hand-written mail?